3rd Conditional

3rd Conditional


We use the third conditional to talk about hypothetical past (things which didn’t happen in the past).


If + past perfect, would (could,might) + have + past participle

Had + past perfect, would (could,might) + have + past participle


If I had met you last week I would have told you about it.

If you had known that you could have done something about the problem.

If he had called me straight away I would have come and helped him.

If she had come earlier she might have met us there.

If we had run faster we might have caught that train.

Had we met under the different circumstances we hight have become friends.

Had we got up earlier we wouldn’t have missed our bus.

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Phrasal verbs with ‚off‘

Phrasal verbs with ‚OFF‘

Call off – cancel

We had to call the exhibition off because of a very low interest.

Cut off – remove a piece from a bigger piece

He cut his finger off when using a table saw.

Cut off – to block

2 police cars cut off their getaway.

Doze off/ Nod off – fall asleep for a short time (informal)

It was difficult not to doze off during his presentation. It was very long and boring.

Yesterday, I nodded off when watching some talent show on TV.

Drive/Ride/Walk off – go away

She slammed the door and drove off in anger.

They rode off into the sunset.

He turned around and walked off due west.

Go off – bomb to explode, alarm clock/to start ringing

Two bombs went off during the Boston marathon in 2013.

I hate when my alarm clock goes off in the morning. I wish I could sleep a bit more.

Keep off – stay away from

The visitors are required to keep off the grass.

Kick off – start a game/an activity

The match kicks off at 3pm.

Lay somebody off – make redundant

There hasn’t been much work lately so the company has decided to lay some workers off.

Lay off something – stop using (informal)

If you want to lose weight, you should lay off chocolate and fatty food.

Put off – postpone, delay

You can’t put off this decision indefinitely.

Rip off – cheat somebody (informal)

They tried to rip me off by charging £50 for a pair of jeans.

Show off – trying to impress others with how good you are (informal)

She likes showing off when others are watching.

Set off – start a journey

We’re setting off at 6am tomorrow.

Take off – remove clothes, accessory

She took off her steamy glasses when she entered the room.

Take off – plane leaving the ground

We watched the plane taking off.

Tell somebody off – reprimand,rebuke (informal)

My father told me off for breaking a window.

Turn/Switch off – cut a supply of electricity

Can you turn off the TV before you go to bed, please?

She forgot to switch off the bathroom light when leaving the house for work.

Write off – damage a car so badly it can’t be repaired

He wrote off 2 cars in 3 years when racing.

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Phrasal verbs with ‚on‘

Phrasal verbs with ‚ON‘

Bring on – to make something bad happen

He brought it all on himself by being rude to others.

Call on somebody – to ask someone to do something

I’m calling on you to do your job properly.

Carry on – continue doing something

Carry on walking, don’t stop!

Dwell on something – to keep thinking or talking about something

She likes to dwell on her success.

Get on with somebody – have a good relationship with

I’m trying to get on well with everybody at work.

Get on with something – to start or continue doing something

Get on with cleaning your bedroom, will you?

Go on – to happen

Nobody knows what goes on behind the closed doors.

Go on about – to talk about something for a long time

She always goes on about her successful daughter. It’s really annoying.

Hold on to something – to keep something you have

Hold on to your ticket until you leave the bus.

Keep on – to continue without stopping

It was hard to keep on reading with all the distraction about.

Move on – move to a new place

We had enough of Paris so we decided to move on.

Move on – to start a new activity

After doing my job for 5 years I felt it was time to move on

Put on – about clothes, make-up, glasses, etc.

It took her ages to put on her new dress and make-up.

Put on – play a CD, DVD

I came home and put my favourite CD on to relax.

Put on weight – gain weight, become heavier

I think he has put on some weight since the last time I saw him.

Try on – clothes in a shop

Go and try this on before you buy it.

Turn/switch on – make it to work

When I get in the car I always turn the radio on before I drive off.

It’s getting dark, switch the lights on, please.

Turn on somebody – start criticising unexpectedly

Out of a sudden they turned on me for making a silly mistake.

Turn somebody on – make somebody excited, aroused (informal)

Slow romantic music really turns her on.

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Phrasal verbs with ‚out‘

Phrasal verbs with ‚out‘

Carry out – to do an experiment/test/orders

The soldiers carried out the orders without any questions.

Cut out – remove an article/picture with scissors from newspaper/magazine

She likes to cut out pictures of her favourite film stars.

Cry out – shout loudly because you’re scared, hurt, etc.

She cried out in shock when she saw a spider.

Drop out – leave a school/university prematurely

He dropped out from university in his 3rd year.

Drive out – to force somebody/something to leave

Supermarkets have driven small shops out of this area.

Eat out – go for a meal to a restaurant

Let’s eat out tonight! I don’t fancy cooking.

Fall out with somebody – stop being friends because of an argument

I fell out with Tom over some money.

Figure out – find a solution to/understand a problem after a lot of thought (informal)

They’ve been trying to figure this out for some time now and still no results.

Find out – discover an information

We have never found out who reversed into our car in the car park.

Kick out – make somebody to leave (informal)

He was kicked out of his last job for being very lazy.

Leave out – do not include

Leave out all the confidential information before you hand this email to the media.

Look out for – try to notice somebody/something

The police asked bank clerks to look out for counterfeit banknotes.

Point out – draw an attention to

She pointed out the mistakes I made in the report.

Print out – make a printed copy of an electronic document

Can you print the invoice out for me, please?

Run out of something – use all available supplies

I’m afraid we have run out of milk. You have to go shopping, then.

Sort out – get things on order

It took me a whole weekend to sort out our holiday pictures.

You should sort out your life!

Watch out/Look out – used when warning somebody of danger

Watch out! He’s got a knife!

Look out! There’s a car coming!

Walk out – leave in protest

The walked out of the meeting because they didn’t agree with the proposals.

Wear out – damage something by using it a lot

My favourite pair of jeans is quite worn out after all those years.

Wear out – make somebody tired

Minister’s long speech made everybody in the house worn out.

Work out – do a physical exercise

She likes to work out 3 times a week.

Work something out – find a solution to a problem

They’ll never work this out.

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Phrasal verbs with ‚in‘

Phrasal verbs with ‚in‘

Break in – to enter by force, to burgle

He lost his keys, so he had to break in his flat.

Call in on somebody – pay a short visit unannounced

Call in on me when you’re in town, will you?

Fill in – to complete a form/questionnaire

They gave me a form to fill in.

It took me a while to fill all the details in.

Join in – take part in an activity with other people

After learning the rules of the game, she happily joined in.

Plug in – to connect an electrical appliance to the mains (a socket)

Plug the computer in before you switch it on.

Take something in – to understand/remember/comprehend an idea/notion

They didn’t seem to take in what I told them.

Sink in – (of an idea) to be fully understood or realized

This idea might take a while to sink in.

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Turn – phrasal verb

Turn – phrasal verb

Turn back – return the way you have come

After reaching the top of the hill, we turned back and started our descend.

Turn down – reject/refuse an offer/opportunity

He was offered an interesting job but he turned it down for no reason.

Turn down – reduce noise/heat

Can you turn the radio down a bit, please? I’m trying to sleep.

Turn into – become something

Our dream holiday turned into nightmare when the hurricane arrived.

Turn on – switch on

He always turns the TV on right after he arrives from work.

Turn on somebody – criticise somebody unexpectedly and suddenly

She turned on me without a reason.

Turn off – switch off

She turned off the TV while she was out in the garden.

Turn off – make somebody feel bored or not interested

We wanted to see a show but the price of the tickets turned us off.

Turn out – to be present at an event

Many people turned out to watch the fireworks by the river.

Turn out – to happen in an unexpected way or have an unexpected result

My business plans didn’t turn out as expected.

Turn over – turn a page

She slowly turned the page over of that old book she found in the loft.

Turn over – think about something carefully and for a long time

She kept turning the remark over in her head as she was walking home to figure out what he meant by it.

Turnover (noun)– takings of a company/business

This year’s turnover was 5 per cent up on the last year.

Turn up – to arrive unexpectedly

The police car turned up outside my front garden in the middle of the night.

Turn up – appear by chance

Stop looking for it – it will turn up one day.

Turn in – go to bed (UK informal)

Last night I turned in at 10pm because I was really exhausted.

Turn somebody in – take a criminal to police

The culprit turned himself in and confessed to the crime.

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Take – phrasal verb

Take – phrasal verb

Take up – start a sport or an activity

I think I’ll take up cycling this summer.

Take off – a plane leaving the ground

The plane took off at 5.45pm.

Take off – to start a trip

They took off after breakfast.

Take off – to strip a garment

He took off his hat before he sat down.

Take over – to become in charge of

The new boss will take over next week.

Take over – when a company buys another company

The company has been taken over by its biggest rival.

Taken aback – be surprised or shocked a lot

I was taken aback by his impertinent remark.

Take on – to employ somebody

She was taken on as a new PA.

Take on – to compete or fight against

After being fired, he took on his former employer.

Take after – look or behave like an older member of the family

She took after his mother.

Take to somebody/something – to start liking

They took to him very quickly.

Take to – develop an ability for

She took to tennis after a couple of lessons.

Take in – to include

This tour takes in 4 museums and an art gallery.

Take in – understand or remember something

I told him many times but he doesn’t seem to take it in.

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Future perfect tenses

Future perfect simple tense


will have + past participle or a regular verb + ed

is/are going to have + past participle or a regular verb + ed (less common)


I will have done the project by the boss arrives.

She will have been married for 12 years this summer.

He will have done all his exams by next Tuesday.


We use ‚future perfect tense‘ to say that an action will be finished or completed by a certain moment in the future.

We also use it when we want to say that an action will have lasted for some time at a certain point in the future.


Tom is playing tennis from 6pm to 7pm; it’s 6.15 now and Jake wants to call him.

I’ll say to Jake: ‚Wait and call Tom after 7 o’clock. He will have finished playing by then.

Meaning: The action (playing tennis) will be over at 7pm.

Mary bought a house in September 2009, so in September 2013 it will have been 4 years since she bought the house.

Future perfect continuous


will have been + verb + ing


At 6pm tonight she will have been playing the piano for 28 hours.

This September I will have been teaching for 3 years.


We use it when talking about continuous activity into the future.

As with all continuous tenses, it can’t be use with certain verbs.


By next Monday, the new machinery will have been working at 100% output.

If he can keep it up, he will have been swimming for 16 hours at 8pm tonight.

She will have been working there for 3 years next week and still no pay rise.

Some verbs are not usually used in progressive form, e.g.:

verbs of senses: feel, hear, see, smell, sound, taste

verbs of feelings: love, hate, like, want, fear, respect, admire, adore, dislike, wish, prefer, impress, concern

verbs of mental activity: agree, believe, expect, know, mean, remember, trust, understand, recognise, realise, suppose, imagine, doubt

verbs of possession: belong, own, owe, possess

other verbs: astonish, appear, deny, seem, surprise, consist, include, fit, involve

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Put – phrasal verb

Put – Phrasal verbs and idioms

(selection of the most common ones)

Put off – to make somebody dislike somebody/something

The terrible smell of the blue cheese put me off eating that dish.

Put on – to dress

It took her ages to put on that new tailor-made dress when we were going to see Tosca.

When a man put on a suit, it’s a matter of minutes.

Put up with – to tolerate

After working like a dog all day, I couldn’t put up with noise coming from the upstairs flat, so I called the police at about midnight.

Put something back – postpone

She phoned me earlier to put our meeting back by a week due to her heavy workload.

Put something off – to postpone, delay

Let’s hope she won’t be putting it off indefinitely.

Put somebody down – to make somebody look or feel stupid

Sop putting your son down in front of his friends, please!

Put an animal down – to take a sick animal to the veterinary doctor and kill it humanely

The kids are sad because we had to put our old dog down yesterday.

Put something down – to stop holding something and place it on a table, shelf…etc.

This book is so good, I can’t put it down!

Put your foot down – to be strict about something

You should put your foot down and make her stop behaving like that!

Put something down to something – attribute it to something

They put her promoting down to her relationship with her boss.

Put on – turn on

When I get home today, I’ll put the kettle on and have a nice cup of tea.

Put on – bet on

Don’t put all your money on one horse!

Put on weight – to gain weight, to become heavier

I haven’t seen you for a while and you look like you’ve put on a few pounds. Good for you!

Put out – to stop something from burning

It took the fire brigade all night to put out the fire in that factory.

Put children through college/ university – to pay for the kids to attend an institution

It’s becoming increasingly expensive to put the kids through university with the rise of tuition fees, books, rent and utility bills.

Put somebody through something – to make somebody experience something bad /difficult/ unpleasant

Our son put us through some rough times when he was in his teens: smoking weed, truancy, brawls etc.

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Give – phrasal verb

Give – phrasal verb

Give away – give something as a present

They are giving away some free drinks this afternoon to attract new customers.

Give something away – to betray, to reveal

She gave her friend’s secret away to her husband.

Give in – to succumb to

The company gave in to the unions‘ relentless pressure.

Give in to somebody/something – to agree to do something you don’t want doing

He gave in to her wife’s pleading and call her mother to apologise.

Give off – to produce something (smell, light, etc.)

These roses are giving off a faint sweet smell.

Give up – stop doing something

You should give up smoking! It’s very bad for you.

Give something up to somebody – to hand over

Upon arrival, we’ve given up our travel documents to the local authorities.

Give up on somebody – stop hoping or believing that a person will change

His parents have given up on him a long time ago.

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