Have/Has got

Have / Has got – to own, to possess

Positive sentences:

I have got a car.

You have got a bicycle.

He has got a dog.

She has got a boyfriend.

It has got green eyes.

We have got a flat in London.

They have got a house in the country.

Negative sentences:

I haven’t got a girlfriend.

You haven’t got a blue car.

He hasn’t (has not) got a dog.

She hasn’t got a job.

It hasn’t got sharp teeth.

We haven’t got a flat in London.

They haven’t got any pets.

Remember: In the 3rd singular (he, she, it) we use ‚has/hasn’t‘ instead of ‚have/haven’t‘!

Questions and answers:

Have you got a car?   Yes, I have.

Have you got a motorbike?   No, I haven’t (have not).

Has he got a brother?   Yes, he has.

Has he got a wife?   No, he hasn’t (has not).

Has she got any pets?   Yes, she has.

Has she got a bicycle?   No, she hasn’t (has not).

Has it got a radio?   Yes, it has.

Has it got green eyes?   No, it hasn’t (has not).

Have we got time?   Yes, we have.

Have we got money?   No, we haven’t (have not).

Have they got any children?   Yes, they have.

Have they got a house?   No, they haven’t (have not).

It is also possible to make questions as:

Do you have a car?   Yes, I do.

Do you have a wife?   No, I don’t (do not).

Does he have a wife?   No, he doesn’t.

Does she have a husband?   Yes, she does.

This is more common in American English.

© www.swotting.eu


Do / Does – questions and negative sentences


We use ‚do‘ and ‚does‘ to make questions in present simple tense (ongoing action at present).


Do you speak English? Yes, I do.

Do you speak French? No, I don’t (do not)

Does he like animals? Yes, he does.

Does he like milk? No, he doesn’t (does not).

Does she like football? Yes, she does.

Does she like bananas? No, she doesn’t.

Do we travel to work by car? No, we don’t.

Do they live in Edinburgh? Yes, they do.

Do they ride bicycles to work? No, they don’t.

As you can see above, do/does are also used in short answers. That is the correct way to answer Yes/No questions in English!

We use ‚do/does‘ in negative sentences:

I don’t like spiders.

You don’t drink coffee.

He doesn’t play computer games.

She doesn’t play with dolls.

We don’t own a flat in Madrid.

They don’t travet to work by train.

‚Do/Does‘ has NO meaning in the sentences above. It is only used for grammatical purposes! It is often called an ‚auxiliary verb‘.

© www.swotting.eu


To be (was, were) in past tense

Positive forms

I was

You were

He was

She was

It was

We were

They were


I was a shop assistant.

You were a cook.

He was a teacher.

She was a nurse.

It was nice weather yesterday.

We were married.

They were on holiday in the US.

Negative forms

I wasn’t (was not)

You weren’t (were not)

He wasn’t

She wasn’t

It wasn’t

We weren’t

They weren’t


I wasn’t (was not) at home last night.

You weren’t (were not) on holiday in Spain last year.

He wasn’t happy about the football score last Sunday.

She wasn’t sad about the loss of her old coat.

It wasn’t very nice weather last weekend.

We weren’t at work on Saturday.

They weren’t busy at work all of last week.

Question forms

Was I…………?

Were you……..?

Was he……..?

Was she…….?

Was it……….?

Were we…..?

Were they….?

Examples of questions and answers:

Were you at work last week? Yes, I was.

Were you busy on Monday? No, I wasn’t (was not).

Was he out last night? Yes, he was.

Was he happy with his test results? No, he wasn’t.

Was she good at maths at school? Yes, she was.

Was she ill last winter? No, she wasn’t.

Was it OK? No, it wasn’t.

Were we at home on Sunday? Yes, we were.

Were we in Spain in summer? No, we weren’t (were not).

Were they married before? Yes, they were.

Were they on holiday last month? No, they weren’t.

© www.swotting.eu

Adverbs of frequency

Adverbs of frequency

We use these adverbs to say how often an action happens.

These adverbs are:

always = 100%



sometimes = 50%



hardly ever

never = 0%


I always go to a pub on Friday after work.

You usually leave house at 7am on weekdays.

He often calls his parents.

She sometimes goes to the cinema.

We occasionally go to the theatre.

We rarely go on holidays in winter.

They hardly ever drive to work.

I never go to work by train.


I don’t always go shopping on Friday. (I sometimes go on Saturday)

You don’t usually buy muesli. (but today you will buy some)

He doesn’t often call my father. Or: He doesn’t call his father very often.

We don’t normally use ‚not‘ with: occasionally, rarely, hardly ever. They have a negative meaning already.


We use ‚How often do/does……………..?‘ to find out the frequency of the action.

We use ‚Do you ever….? when we don’t know IF the action happens at all.

Do you ever go to the gym? No, never.

We can also ask:

Do you always go there?

Does he sometimes drink beer?

Does she usually go shopping on Monday?

© www.swotting.eu

Present continuous tense

Present continuous

We use ‚present continuous‘ to express that:

  1. something is happening right now

  2. something is happening at present period repeatedly. We also expect the action to finish at a definite point.


to be (is/are) + verb+ing


study, play, etc. = studying, playing (‚y‘ at the end)

write, ride, etc. = writing, riding (vowel at the end)

shop, put, etc. = shopping, putting (from the end combination consonant-vowel-consonant, the last consonant doubles)


I am writing a letter to my dad. (happening right now)

You are shopping at M&S every Friday. (repeated activity at present)

He is studying history at university. (only this term, when it’s finished, it’s finished)

She is reading an interesting book about Greek mythology at present. (it doesn’t mean that she is reading the book at this very moment!)

It is raining outside. Take an umbrella, will you?

We are driving to work every day this week.

They are visiting her parents in Bolton this weekend.


I am not going to school any more.

You aren’t taking a train to work this month.

He isn’t staying with his friends in Nice for a week. He is staying in a B&B.

She is not preparing for her exams properly and thus she will fail them all.

It isn’t snowing today.

We are not learning to drive this year. Maybe next year.

They are not talking to each other at the moment. (we expect it to finish)


On the phone: ‚Are you out tonight?‘ Yes, I am.

Is he drinking with you? No, he isn’t.

Is she telling them about her plans for next year? Yes, she is.

Is it raining outside? No, it isn’t.

Are we watching TV tonight? Yes, we are.

Are they staying with you this week? No, they aren’t.

We also use ‚present continuous‘ for the future arrangements WHEN those arrangements are about 99.9% certain to happen. Only the end of the world could change our plans! (so to speak )

There are some verbs which are not normally used in ‚present continuous‘ tense.

Using them in ‚present continuous‘ could change their meaning! BUT it is possible to use some of them in informal English.

This is a list of some commonly used verbs:

  • verbs of senses: feel, hear, see, smell, sound, taste
  • verbs of feelings: love, hate, like, want, fear, respect, admire, adore, dislike, wish, prefer, impress, concern
  • verbs of mental activity: agree, believe, expect, know, mean, remember, trust, understand, recognise, realise, suppose, imagine, doubt
  • verbs of possession: belong, own, owe, possess
  • other verbs: astonish, appear, deny, seem, surprise, consist, include, fit, involve

© www.swotting.eu

Irregular verbs

List of irregular verbs

We use ‚Present participle‘ in past simple tense.

We use ‚Past participle‘ in all perfect tenses and in passive voice.

Infinitive Present participle Past Participle
arise arose arisen
awake awoke awoken
be was,were been
bear bore borne,born
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bet bet bet
bid bid bid
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast broadcast
build built built
burn burned,burnt burned,burnt
burst burst burst
buy bought bought

cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
cling clung clung
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamed,dreamt dreamed,dreamt
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fit fit fit
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbid forbade forbidden
forecast forecast forecast
foretell foretold foretold
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
forsake forsook forsaken
freeze froze frozen
get got gotten,got
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
hang hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
kneel knelt,kneeled knelt,kneeled
knit knit,knitted knit,knitted
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
lean leaned,leant leaned,leant
leap leaped,leapt leaped,leapt
learn learned,learnt learned,learnt
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
light lighted,lit lighted,lit
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
mislay mislaid mislaid
mistake mistook mistaken
overtake overtook overtaken
pay paid paid
prove proved proved,proven
put put put
quit quit quit
read read read
rid rid rid
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
saw sawed sawed,sawn
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewn,sewed
shake shook shaken
shave shaved shaved,shaven
shear sheared sheared,shorn
shine shone shone
shoot shot shot
show showed showed,shown
shrink shrank shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank,sunk sunk
sit sat sat
slay slew slain
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
slit slit slit
smell smelled,smelt smelled,smelt
sneak sneaked,snuck sneaked,snuck
speak spoke spoken
speed sped sped
spell spelled,spelt spelled,spelt
spend spent spent
spill spilled,spilt spilled,spilt
spin spun spun
spit spat,spit spat,spit
split split split
spoil spoiled,spoilt spoiled,spoilt
spread spread spread
spring sprang sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stank,stunk stunk
strew strewed strewn
strike struck struck,stricken
string strung strung
strive strove striven
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swell swelled swelled,swollen
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
undergo underwent undergone
understand understood understood
undertake undertook undertaken
upset upset upset
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
weave wove,weaved woven,weaved
weep wept wept
wet wet,wetted wet,wetted
win won won
wind wound wound
withdraw withdrew withdrawn
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written

Past simple tense

Past simple tense

We use past simple tense to say that something happened in the past at a definite time (yesterday, last week, last year etc.). The time doesn’t need to be mentioned but it is clear that the action is over.


to be = was/were

I was

You were

He/She/It was

We were

They were


I was 23 last week. I wasn’t (was not) at work yesterday.

You were happy last time I met you. You weren’t (were not) sad.

He was ill when I called him. He wasn’t in the pub last night.

She was on holiday last summer. She wasn’t in Italy.

It was a nice day yesterday. It wasn’t too hot.

We were in the pub last night. We weren’t at an opera.

They were in Paris last weekend. They weren’t at home.

Verb forms:

Regular verbs: -ed

talked, played, stayed, lived, worked, managed, watched, studied

Irregular verbs: about 290 of them, see a good dictionary for a full list, in past tense we use so-called present participle of these verbs.

Went, met, got, ran, swam, bought, found, brought etc.

Negative form: use didn’t + verb in bare infinitive (go, play, stay, sleep etc.)

was = wasn’t (was not)

were = weren’t (were not)


I went to a shop yesterday to buy a new pair of jeans but I didn’t (did not) buy any because I didn’t like any of them.

The bus was late and thus I was late for work this morning. (It’s afternoon now).

Tom worked in the shop but now he studies at university only. (not working any more)

She wasn’t (was not) very happy with her GCSE results but her mum said it was OK.

Our car broke down on our way to the airport so we had to call a taxi.

It was just a sheer luck we weren’t (were not) late for our flight.

When they went on holiday to France last summer they didn’t have time to visit Notre Dame cathedral in the centre of Paris.

Making questions in past simple:

Are you = Were you; Were you at work last week?

Is he = Was he; Was he ill last weekend?

Is she = Was she; Was she in the cinema last night?

Is it = Was it; Was your food OK?

Are we = Were we; Were we happy about that?

Are they = Were they; Were they nice to you?

Do = Did + verb

Did you like the film you saw in the cinema yesterday?

Did she go out with him to the restaurant?

Did he offer her a lift back home?

Did they have a good time?

Answers in past simple:

Were you busy at work today? Yes, I was.

Was he nice to you? No, he wasn’t (was not).

Were they happy to see you again? Yes, they were.

Was she upset about the weather? No, she wasn’t (was not).

Were we pleased with the service? No, we weren’t (were not).

Did you visit your mum last weekend? Yes, I did.

Did he lend you his car for a day? No, he didn’t (did not).

Did she go to the cinema with him? Yes, she did.

Did your father buy you an ice cream? No, he didn’t (did not).

Did we like the film? Yes, we did.

Did they invite you to their wedding? No, they didn’t (did not).

© www.swotting.eu

Comparatives and Superlatives

Comparatives and superlatives

Most one syllable adjectives, e.g. strong, fast, tall, small, short

strong – stronger – the strongest

fast – faster – the fastest

tall – taller – the tallest

small – smaller – the smallest

short – shorter – the shortest

Just add -er for comparative and -est for superlative

Adjective ending in -e, e.g. large, nice

large – larger – the largest

nice – nicer – the nicest

Just add -r for comparative and -st for superlative

Adjectives ending in consonant + vowel, e.g. big, fat, slim

big – bigger – the biggest

fat – fatter – the fattest

slim – slimmer – the slimmest

Always double the last consonant!!

Adjectives ending in -y, e.g. heavy, pretty, ugly

heavy – heavier – the heaviest

pretty – prettier – the prettiest

ugly – uglier – the ugliest

-ier for comparative and -iest for superlative

Adjectives with more than two syllables, e.g. expensive, powerful, comfortable

expensive – more expensive – the most expensive

powerful – more powerful – the most powerful

comfortable – more comfortable – the most comfortable

‚more‘ to make a comparative and ‚the most‘ to make a superlative

Irregular adjectives

good – better – the best

bad – worse – the worst

far – farther – the farthest

Don’t forget to use ‚the‘ with a superlative!

© www.swotting.eu

May / Might

May & Might


May (more formal than ‚can‘)

To give permission: (I say that you are allowed to….)

You may go home early today.

She may visit you tonight.

You may not go clubbing this weekend.

He may park his car here.

We may take our holiday in June.

They may not play football this Sunday.


May I go to the cinema on Friday night? Yes, you may. No, you may not.

May we go camping next weekend? Yes, you may. No, you may not.


Used in conditionals:

If you asked him to call you back he might do it.

If she was invited to the party, she might arrive later.

If he tells me about the problem, I might sort it out for him.

Used in indirect speech:

He said he might go on holiday to Brazil.

She mentioned she might change her job soon.

They told me they might try for a baby next year.

My GP (doctor) told me I might die of cancer if I don’t quit smoking.

May/Might for present and future possibility

Might increases the doubt.

I may go to the university next year. (thinking about it)

I might study law. (not sure about what to study)

He may/might be waiting for us at the other exit.

She may/might apply for that job.

They may/might not believe our story. (perhaps they won’t)

We may/might not arrive on time. (perhaps we’ll be late)

Live your life to the full! You might day tomorrow. (not likely to happen but you never know…)

May/ Might

For speculations about past actions

Usually use with present perfect tense

I don’t know where he is now. He may/might got lost on his way here.

He may/might have prepared the presentation for the board of trustees last weekend.

(I don’t know if it’s ready)

She may/might have gone shopping for what I know. (don’t know and don’t care)


In conditionals

If you have called me last night, I might have told you about the problem.

If she left him, she might have a better life (not certainty)

If we had booked our holiday last week, we might have got a lower price.

If they had given their employees a pay rise, the workers might have stayed on.

When main verb in past

He said he might leave early yesterday.

You told me you might lend lend me your car next weekend.

She thought she might get away with it.

We told him that he might borrow our cottage for the romantic weekend.

© www.swotting.eu



For future events

We use ‚will‘ to say that something happens in future.


I‚ll go (will go) on holiday to France next year.

You‚ll receive a pay rise next month.

He‚ll be very happy when he hears the good news about his brother.

She will start school next week.

It will be nice weather tomorrow.

We will get married in May this year.

They‚ll come to our wedding in Leeds.


I won’t (will not) arrive on Monday.

You won’t like that cake.

He won’t be pleased to hear that.

She won’t finish her test on time.

We won’t play the piano any more, I promise.

They won’t come to our party on Friday.

Questions and answers

Will I go there next week? Yes, I will.

Will you love me for ever? Yes, I will.

Will he go to university after college? No, he won’t.

Will she visit us next summer? No, she won’t.

Will they go out with us tonight? Yes, they will.

In 1st conditional (for present and future)

We use 1st conditional to say that something is possible after something else happens.


If + present simple, will……

If I learn English well, I will go to study in England.

If you study hard, you will get good grades.

If you get good grades at school, your parents will buy you a new computer.

If he leaves work at 6pm, he won’t come home before 7pm.

If she starts saving money now, she’ll have enough for a decent car next year.

If they don’t stop shouting, I’ll call the police!

© www.swotting.eu