Have/Has got

Have / Has got – to own, to possess

Positive sentences:

I have got a car.

You have got a bicycle.

He has got a dog.

She has got a boyfriend.

It has got green eyes.

We have got a flat in London.

They have got a house in the country.

Negative sentences:

I haven’t got a girlfriend.

You haven’t got a blue car.

He hasn’t (has not) got a dog.

She hasn’t got a job.

It hasn’t got sharp teeth.

We haven’t got a flat in London.

They haven’t got any pets.

Remember: In the 3rd singular (he, she, it) we use ‚has/hasn’t‘ instead of ‚have/haven’t‘!

Questions and answers:

Have you got a car?   Yes, I have.

Have you got a motorbike?   No, I haven’t (have not).

Has he got a brother?   Yes, he has.

Has he got a wife?   No, he hasn’t (has not).

Has she got any pets?   Yes, she has.

Has she got a bicycle?   No, she hasn’t (has not).

Has it got a radio?   Yes, it has.

Has it got green eyes?   No, it hasn’t (has not).

Have we got time?   Yes, we have.

Have we got money?   No, we haven’t (have not).

Have they got any children?   Yes, they have.

Have they got a house?   No, they haven’t (have not).

It is also possible to make questions as:

Do you have a car?   Yes, I do.

Do you have a wife?   No, I don’t (do not).

Does he have a wife?   No, he doesn’t.

Does she have a husband?   Yes, she does.

This is more common in American English.

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Do/does

Do / Does – questions and negative sentences

 

We use ‚do‘ and ‚does‘ to make questions in present simple tense (ongoing action at present).

Examples:

Do you speak English? Yes, I do.

Do you speak French? No, I don’t (do not)

Does he like animals? Yes, he does.

Does he like milk? No, he doesn’t (does not).

Does she like football? Yes, she does.

Does she like bananas? No, she doesn’t.

Do we travel to work by car? No, we don’t.

Do they live in Edinburgh? Yes, they do.

Do they ride bicycles to work? No, they don’t.

As you can see above, do/does are also used in short answers. That is the correct way to answer Yes/No questions in English!

We use ‚do/does‘ in negative sentences:

I don’t like spiders.

You don’t drink coffee.

He doesn’t play computer games.

She doesn’t play with dolls.

We don’t own a flat in Madrid.

They don’t travet to work by train.

‚Do/Does‘ has NO meaning in the sentences above. It is only used for grammatical purposes! It is often called an ‚auxiliary verb‘.

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A1 Basic test

A1 Basic knowledge test

Time limit: 60min

Complete sentences:

1) What is …… name? a) you b) your c) yours

2) How …… are you? a) old b) age c) years

3) Where ….. you come from? a) do b) does c) is

4) …… you married? a) is b) are c) do

5) ….. she got any children a) have b) has c) does

6) He ….. work in a bank. a) don’t b) doesn’t c) isn’t

Days of the week:

Sunday …………………. ………………… Wednesday ………………..

…………………….. ……………………….

Numbers:

1…….. 2………. 3……….4………. 5………… 6……… 7……….. 8………. 9………. 10……..

11…………. 12…………. 13………… 14………….. 15………… 16…………. 17………… 18……………. 19…………… 20……………. 21…………….. 30………….

Nationalities:

Britain …………….. Czech Republic ……………… France ……………. Italy………………

Germany…………… Russia…………… Spain…………… Poland…………. Greece ………….

Complete job names:

an en_ _ n _ er   a d_ c_ _ r    a n_ _ _ e    an ac_ _ _ _t _ _ t

a w_ _t _ _ _ s    a t _ _ ch_ r    an ac_ _r    a dr_ _ _r

Complete with this, that, these, those

…….. keys over here are mine. ……… car outside is my father’s.

Who are ……. people over there? Whose is …… book I’m holding in my hand?

Choose the correct answer:

What’s the time, please?

a) It’s 3 o’clock. b) Sorry, I’m busy. c) Yes, I have.

Has he got a car?

a) He’s got a blue car. b) Yes, he does. c) Yes, he has.

Are they married?

a) Yes, they are. b) Yes, they do. c) They are married.

Where do you come from?

a) I’m from Birmingham b) I live abroad. c) Yes, I do.

Telling the time

Re-write the times:

3.15 ………………….. 6.25………………….. 13.10…………………… 21.35………………..

1pm…………………… 7.30………………….. 5.45……………………. 17.50………………..

Months of the year

Ja………….. Fe………….. M……… A…….. M…….. J……… J…………

Au………. Se……………. O……………… No……………… De……………….

RESULTS:

Complete sentences:

1) What is …… name? a) you b) your c) yours

2) How …… are you? a) old b) age c) years

3) Where ….. you come from? a) do b) does c) is

4) …… you married? a) is b) are c) do

5) ….. she got any children a) have b) has c) does

6) He ….. work in a bank. a) don’t b) doesn’t c) isn’t

Days of the week:

Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

Friday Saturday

Numbers:

1one 2 two 3 three 4 four 5 five 6 six 7 seven 8 eight 9 nine 10 ten

11 eleven 12 twelve 13 thirteen 14 fourteen 15 fifteen 16 sixteen 17 seventeen 18 eighteen 19 nineteen 20 twenty 21 twenty one 30 thirty

Nationalities:

Britain British Czech Republic Czech France French Italy Italian

Germany German Russia Russian Spain Spanish Poland Polish Greece Greek

Complete job names:

an engineer a doctor a nurse an accountant

a waitress a teacher an actor a driver

Complete with this, that, these, those

These keys over here are mine. That car outside is my father’s.

Who are those people over there? Whose is this book I’m holding in my hand?

Choose the correct answer:

What’s the time, please?

a) It’s 3 o’clock. b) Sorry, I’m busy. c) Yes, I have.

Has he got a car?

a) He’s got a blue car. b) Yes, he does. c) Yes, he has.

Are they married?

a) Yes, they are. b) Yes, they do. c) They are married.

Where do you come from?

a) I’m from Birmingham b) I live abroad. c) Yes, I do.

Telling the time

Re-write the times:

3.15 quarter past three 6.25 twenty-five past six 13.10 ten past one 21.35 twenty-five to ten 1pm one o’clock 7.30 half past seven 5.45 quarter to six 17.50 ten to six

Months of the year

January February March April May June July

August September October November December

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Future perfect tense

Future perfect tense

Usage:

We use ‚future perfect tense‘ to say that an action will be finished or completed by a certain moment in the future.

We also use it when we want to say that an action will have lasted for some time at a certain point in the future.

Form:

will have + past participle or a regular verb + ed

is/are going to have + past participle or a regular verb + ed (less common)

Examples:

I will have done the project by the boss arrives.

She will have been married for 12 years this summer.

He will have done all his exams by next Tuesday.

Tom is playing tennis from 6pm to 7pm; it’s 6.15 now and Jake wants to call him.

I’ll say to Jake: ‚Wait and call Tom after 7 o’clock. He will have finished playing by then.

Meaning: The action (playing tennis) will be over at 7pm.

Mary bought a house in September 2009, so in September 2013 it will have been 4 years since she bought the house.

Future perfect continuous

Usage:

We use it when talking about continuous activity into the future.

As with all continuous tenses, it can’t be use with certain verbs.

Form:

will have been + verb + ing

Examples:

At 6pm tonight she will have been playing the piano for 28 hours.

This September I will have been teaching for 3 years.

By next Monday, the new machinery will have been working at 100% output.

If he can keep it up, he will have been swimming for 16 hours at 8pm tonight.

She will have been working there for 3 years next week and still no pay rise.

Some verbs are not usually used in progressive form, e.g.:

  • verbs of senses: feel, hear, see, smell, sound, taste
  • verbs of feelings: love, hate, like, want, fear, respect, admire, adore, dislike, wish, prefer, impress, concern
  • verbs of mental activity: agree, believe, expect, know, mean, remember, trust, understand, recognise, realise, suppose, imagine, doubt
  • verbs of possession: belong, own, owe, possess
  • other verbs: astonish, appear, deny, seem, surprise, consist, include, fit, involve

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Past perfect continuous

Past perfect continuous

Usage:

We use it when we want to say that something had been going on until a certain moment in the past.

Both actions happened in the past and no connection to present.

Examples:

He had been living in the UK for 6 years when he enrolled on a teacher training course. ( He had lived there for some time and THEN he went on a course.)

The music had been playing loudly for 2 hours when the neighbours started to complain. (First the music was playing for some time and THEN the complaining has started.)

Form:

had been + verb + ing

Examples:

The debate had been going on for some time when the last delegates arrived.

When I got home I saw that she had been crying.

They hadn’t been playing computer games any more when I came home.

He was sweaty and out of breath when I met him. Had he been running?

She had been working hard ‚till the day she had a cardiac arrest.

We had been doing homework before we went out to play.

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If + would (second conditional)

2nd conditional

Usage:

We talk about an imaginary situation. It doesn’t relate to any specific time period.

Form:

If + past simple , would + present simple

In British English, it is possible to use ‚If I was‘ .

In American English only ‚If I were‘ is considered a correct form.

Examples:

If I was/were a manager here, I would make many changes.

(=BUT I am not a manager here)

If I won a lottery, I wouldn’t bother going to work and I would travel all over the world.

(=it’s not very likely I am going to win a lottery)

If they got a house to live in, they wouldn’t stay with her parents.

(= but they haven’t got a house to live in nor money to buy it)

If she married me, I would be the luckiest man alive!

( =I think she will not marry me, it’s just a wish!)

If the Humankind made contact with an extra-terrestrial life form, it would change our view on our place in the universe.

(= it is not probable that we ever make contact with any life forms on other planets)

We can also use this structure:

Was/Were I any very good with computers, I would work as a hacker.

Was she nicer to me, we still would be friends today.

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If + will (first conditional)

1st conditional (for present and future)

Usage:

We use 1st conditional to say that something is possible after something else happens.

When a condition in the first part of the sentence ( ‚if‘ part ) happens, next thing follows ( will +…..).

You can’t use 1st conditional for past possibilities, we use 3rd conditional for that (see B2 section).

Form:

If + present simple, will……

Examples:

If I learn English well, I will go to study in England.

If you study hard, you will get good grades.

If you get good grades at school, your parents will buy you a new computer.

If he leaves work at 6pm, he won’t come home before 7pm.

If she starts saving money now, she’ll have enough for a decent car next year.

If they don’t stop shouting, I’ll call the police!

 

We never use ‚if + will‘ in the same part of the sentence.

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Conditionals summary

Conditionals summary

1st conditional

Usage:

We use the 1st conditional to say something can happen when the condition is fulfilled. It relates to present and future.

Form:

If + present simple , future simple

Examples:

If you want to buy a car, you’ll have to save some money.

If we keep polluting the Earth, we will destroy our civilisation.

If I have got some time this week, I will go to the theatre.

If he doesn’t study hard, he will fail his exams at school.

If it doesn’t rain soon, the harvest won’t be much.

2nd conditional

Usage:

We talk about an imaginary situation. It doesn’t relate to any specific time period.

Form:

If + past simple , would + present simple

In British English, it is possible to use ‚If I was‘ .

In American English only ‚If I were‘ is considered a correct form.

Examples:

If I was/were a manager here, I would make many changes.

(=BUT I am not a manager here)

If I won a lottery, I wouldn’t bother going to work and I would travel all over the world.

(=it’s not very likely I am going to win a lottery)

If they got a house to live in, they wouldn’t stay with her parents.

(= but they haven’t got a house to live in nor money to buy it)

If she married me, I would be the luckiest man alive!

( =I think she will not marry me, it’s just a wish!)

If the Humankind made contact with an extra-terrestrial life form, it would change our view on our place in the universe.

(= it is not probable that we ever make contact with any life forms on other planets)

We can also use this structure:

Was/Were I any very good with computers, I would work as a hacker.

Was she nicer to me, I wouldn’t split up with her.

3rd conditional

Usage:

We talk about situations that didn’t happen in the past.

Form:

If + past perfect , would have + past participle

Examples:

If I had known about you coming over, I would have thrown a welcome party.

( = but I didn’t know)

If they had found him earlier, they could have saved his life.

(= But the found him too late)

If she hadn’t worn a seatbelt, she would have sustained serious injuries.

(= But she wore a seatbelt, fortunately)

If you had told me about you losing a job, I would have set up an interview with my boss.

( I couldn’t do anything because you didn’t tell me)

If he had married married her, they wouldn’t have been very happy for long.

(= but he didn’t marry her and that saved him from future problems)

We can also use this structure:

Had I known about your health problems, I wouldn’t have asked you about the loan.

Had she met her husband at university, she would have been married by now.

Had they not missed their plane last night, they would have been in the USA by now.

Mixed conditional

Usage:

We sometimes mix second and third conditional to talk about hypothetical situation in the past with present/future  consequences.

Examples:

If you hadn’t drunk that much last night, you would be fine today.

If you had told me earlier, we wouln’t be in trouble today.

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Present perfect continuous

Present perfect continuous

Form:

have/has been + verb + ing

Examples:

I have been washing up all morning.

You’ve been driving me mad all day.

He’s been running for 2 hours now.

She’s been learning to drive a lorry for the past year.

We’ve been going out for 3 years now.

They’ve been working in the garden all summer.

Usage:

1) We use ‚present perfect continuous to talk about actions which started in the past and still going on (I’ve been reading a book on horticulture)

or having an effect on present (It’s been raining. The ground is still wet).

We usually use present perfect continuous for short-time actions:

The man has been standing on the corner all afternoon. (we assume he’ll eventually go home)

For speaking about long-term or permanent actions it’s better to use present perfect simple:

I’ve moved house recently.

I’ve lived in London for 6 years now.

2) We also prefer to use PP continuous to talk about continuous change or development:

The Universe has been expanding for almost 14 billion years.

The human population has been steadily ageing.

3) We use PP continuous to emphasise the action itself:

I’ve been working really hard recently.

He’s been making a lot of noise since 6am.

When we want to focus on the result of the action, we use PP simple:

I’ve finished the book so now I know who killed the master.

She has completed that report in time. It’s done!

Some verbs are not usually used in progressive form, e.g.:

  • verbs of senses: feel, hear, see, smell, sound, taste
  • verbs of feelings: love, hate, like, want, fear, respect, admire, adore, dislike, wish, prefer, impress, concern
  • verbs of mental activity:agree, believe, expect, know, mean, remember, trust, understand, recognise, realise, suppose, imagine, doubt
  • verbs of possession: belong, own, owe, possess
  • other verbs: astonish, appear, deny, seem, surprise, consist, include, fit, involve    www.swotting.eu